Microfluidic GLUCOSE Bio-Fuel Cells

Applications: Glucose Sensing, Energy Harvesting (Primarily for Low powered applications)

a) Fabrication process flow of microfluidic paper based analytical enzymatic biofuel cell b) complete experimental setup of Y-shaped µPAD-EBFC c) shelf-staked version of four Y-shaped µPAD-EBFC

Paper-Based EBFCs

  • Self-driven membraneless microfluidic paper based EBFC for glucose sensing and energy harvesting

  • Fabrication material

    • Microchannel - Whatman #1 filter paper

    • Bioelectrodes - Bucky paper

  • Maximum power density 100 µW/cm² (600 µA/cm² at 0.505 V)

  • Various beverages have been utilised as fuel - Mountain Dew, Pepsi, 7up and Fresh Watermelon Juice

3D Printed EBFCs

  • Fully integrated microfluidic membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell (µM-EBFC) fabricated using a 3D printer

  • Fabrication material

    • Microchannel - Polylactic acid (PLA)

    • Bioelectrodes - electrically conductive Graphene-PLA material

  • OCP of 0.425 V & maximum peak power density (PD) of 4.15 μW/cm² (current density of 13.36 µA/cm²)

Complete experimental setup images of 3DP-MM-EBFC. a) CAD design of two separate parts b) Complete joint/clipped design c) Digital image of two separate parts of 3DP-MM-EBFC d) Top view contains two inlets e) Side view of the 3DP-MM-EBFC with outlet (f) Complete experimental setup of 3DP-MM-EBFC

a) Two separate microchannel channel parts embedded with enzymes modified PGE’s b) Top view of the clipped version with two inlets c) Bottom view of the clipped version with outlet d) Complete experimental setup of PGE based 3DP- MM-EBFC

Glucose Biofuel Cell with Pencil Bioelectrodes

  • Miniaturized membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell (MM-EBFC) fabricated using a 3D printer

  • Fabrication of such EBFC was carried out

    • Microchannel-ABS filament

    • Bioelectrodes-Pencil graphite lead

  • The PGE based 3DP-MM-EBFC showed open circuit potential (OCP) of 0.433 V and with a maximum power density of 18 µW/cm² at a current density of 60 µA/cm²

LIG based µ-fluidic EBFC

  • One step procedure to synthesize laser-induced graphene (LIG) by CO₂ laser.

  • Microchannel fabricated using PDMS soft lithography

  • Maximum Power Density of 2.13 µW/cm²

M-EBFC fabrication: a) Assembly steps b) Schematic of the fully assembled cell c) Image of the biofuel cell.

Related Publications & Patents


1. A System and Method for Electric Power and Process thereof for Manufacturing the System

      • Inventors: Sanket Goel, Prakash Rewatkar, Madhavi B and Balaji Krishnamurthy

      • Status: Indian Patent Filed (201711046160, December-2017)

Journal Publications

22. Jayapiriya U S and Sanket Goel, Microfluidic Non-Enzymatic Biofuel Cell Integrated with Electrodeposited Metallic Catalysts on a Paper based Platform, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 510, # 230405, 2021.

21. Jayapiriya U S, Prakash Rewatkar and Sanket Goel, Direct Electron Transfer based Microfluidic Glucose Biofuel cell with CO2 Laser ablated Bioelectrodes and Microchannel, IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience (accepted).

20. Jayapiriya U S, Prakash Rewatkar and Sanket Goel, Miniaturized Polymeric Enzymatic Biofuel Cell with Integrated Microfluidic Device and Enhanced Laser Ablated Bioelectrodes, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 46(4), pp. 3183-3192, 2021.

19. Jayapiriya U S and Sanket Goel, Surface Modified 3D printed Carbon Bioelectrodes for Glucose/O2 Enzymatic Biofuel Cell: Comparison and Optimization, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol . 42, article number 100811, 2020.

18. Jayapiriya U S and Sanket Goel, Flexible and Optimized Carbon Paste Electrodes for Direct Electron Transfer based Glucose Biofuel cell fed by various Physiological Fluids, Applied Nanoscience, vol. 10, pp. 4315–4324, 2020.

17. Prakash Rewatkar, Jayapiriya U S, Sanket Goel, Optimized Shelf-stacked Paper Origami based Glucose Biofuel cell with Immobilized Enzymes and Mediator, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, vol. 8(32), pp. 12313–12320, 2020.

16. P. Rewatkar, A. Kothuru, and S. Goel, “PDMS-Based Microfluidic Glucose Biofuel Cell Integrated with Optimized Laser-Induced Flexible Graphene Bioelectrodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 1832–1838, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1109/TED.2020.2971480.

15. L. T. Rao, S. K. Dubey, A. Javed, and S. Goel, “Statistical Performance Analysis and Robust Design of Paper Microfluidic Membraneless Fuel Cell With Pencil Graphite Electrodes,” J. Electrochem. Energy Convers. Storage, vol. 17, no. 3, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1115/1.4045979.

14. P. Rewatkar and S. Goel, “3D Printed Bioelectrodes for Enzymatic Biofuel Cell: Simple, Rapid, Optimized and Enhanced Approach,” IEEE Trans. Nanobioscience, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 4–10, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1109/TNB.2019.2941196.

13. P. Rewatkar, M. Bandapati, and S. Goel, “Miniaturized additively manufactured co-laminar microfluidic glucose biofuel cell with optimized grade pencil bioelectrodes,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 44, no. 59, pp. 31434–31444, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.10.002.

12. P. Rewatkar, V. P. Hitaishi, E. Lojou, and S. Goel, “Enzymatic fuel cells in a microfluidic environment: Status and opportunities. A mini review,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 107. Elsevier Inc., p. 106533, 01-Oct-2019, doi: 10.1016/j.elecom.2019.106533.

11. P. Rewatkar and S. Goel, “Microfluidic paper based membraneless biofuel cell to harvest energy from various beverages,” J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng., vol. 10, no. 1, p. 49, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.5599/jese.687.

10. P. Rewatkar and S. Goel, “Next-Generation 3D Printed Microfluidic Membraneless Enzymatic Biofuel Cell: Cost-Effective and Rapid Approach,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 3628–3635, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.1109/TED.2019.2922424.

9. D. Nath, P. Sai Kiran, P. Rewatkar, B. Krishnamurthy, P. Sankar Ganesh, and S. Goel, “Escherichia coli Fed Paper-Based Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell with MWCNT Composed Bucky Paper Bioelectrodes,” IEEE Trans. Nanobioscience, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 510–515, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.1109/TNB.2019.2919930.

8. M. Bandapati, B. Krishnamurthy, and S. Goel, “Fully assembled membraneless glucose biofuel cell with MWCNT modified pencil graphite leads as novel bioelectrodes,” IEEE Trans. Nanobioscience, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 170–175, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.1109/TNB.2019.2896207.

7. C. Mankar, P. Rewatkar, M. Dhone, S. Balpande, J. Kalambe, R. Pande and S. Goel, “Paper Based Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell to Harvest Energy from Urine,” Sens. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 69–74, Mar. 2019, doi: 10.1166/sl.2019.3998.

6. M. Bandapati, P. Rewatkar, B. Krishnamurthy, and S. Goel, “Functionalized and Enhanced HB Pencil Graphite as Bioanode for Glucose-O2 Biofuel Cell,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 802–811, Feb. 2019, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2018.2878582.

5. P. Rewatkar and S. Goel, “Paper-Based Membraneless Co-Laminar Microfluidic Glucose Biofuel Cell with MWCNT-Fed Bucky Paper Bioelectrodes,” IEEE Trans. Nanobioscience, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 374–379, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1109/TNB.2018.2857406.

4. P. Rewatkar, M. Bandapati, and S. Goel, “Optimized bucky paper-based bioelectrodes for oxygen-glucose fed enzymatic biofuel cells,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 5395–5401, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2018.2837092.

3. S. Goel, “From waste to watts in micro-devices: Review on development of Membraned and Membraneless Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell,” Applied Materials Today, vol. 11. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 270–279, 01-Jun-2018, doi: 10.1016/j.apmt.2018.03.005.

2. M. Bandapati, P. K. Dwivedi, B. Krishnamurthy, Y. H. Kim, G. M. Kim, and S. Goel, “Screening various pencil leads coated with MWCNT and PANI as enzymatic biofuel cell biocathode,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, no. 44, pp. 27220–27229, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.016.

1. S. Jariwala, S. Phul, R. Nagpal, S. Goel, and B. Krishnamurthy, “Modeling the performance of enzymatic glucose fuel cells,” J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 801, pp. 354–359, Sep. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.08.015